Purpose: Rac GTPase-activating protein 1 (RACGAP1) is associated with cell proliferation, and there is much evidence of its oncogenic role. This study investigated the clinical importance and functional role of RACGAP1 in esophageal carcinoma (EC). Methods: A total of 81 EC patients were enrolled in the study. We assessed the immunohistochemical score of EC tissues and adjacent normal esophageal mucosae, and then performed multiple cell function tests by means of in vitro experiments to elucidate the functional role of RACGAP1 using RNA interference technology in EC cell lines. Results: RACGAP1 was significantly overexpressed in EC tissues compared with the adjacent normal esophageal mucosae (p < 0.0001). Moreover, RACGAP1 overexpression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival (p = 0.032) and disease-free survival (p = 0.012) in EC patients. High RACGAP1 expression was also significantly correlated with the presence of lymphatic invasion (p = 0.012), vessel invasion (p = 0.003), and advanced TNM (tumor-node-metastasis) stage (p = 0.046) in EC patients. In vitro analysis demonstrated that RACGAP1 was involved in the proliferation, tumorigenicity, invasion, migration, and anoikis resistance in EC cells. Conclusions: RACGAP1 plays a pivotal role in EC development, suggesting that it could be used as an indicator of prognosis in EC patients.