It is of significant importance to simultaneously shorten the start-up time and enhance the electricity generation performance for practical application of microbial fuel cell (MFC). In this paper, the polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) modified carbon felt (PDDA-CF) electrode was prepared and used as the anode of PDDA-MFC. The anode significantly enhanced the start-up speed and electricity generation and dye wastewater degradation performances of the PDDA-MFC. The start-up time of PDDA-MFC is only 9 h, which is only 7.5% that of the unmodified carbon felt anode MFC (CF-MFC). The charge transfer resistance, the maximum output voltage and the maximum output power density of PDDA-MFC were 9.7 Ω, 741 mV and 537.8 mW m-2 respectively, which were 70.3% lower than, 1.7 times and 3.3 times greater than those of CF-MFC respectively. In addition, the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rates of Reactive Brilliant Red X-3B for PDDA-MFC reached 95.94% and 64.24% at 24 h respectively, which were 41.5% and 51.2% higher than those of CF-MFC respectively. Due to the electrostatic attraction of PDDA, the adhesion and metabolic mass transfer rate of exoelectrogens are accelerated, thus the PDDA-CF electrode has excellent electrochemical properties and bio-affinity. This paper provides a new idea to enhance the start-up speed and performance of MFC simultaneously. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.