Questioning Four Preconceived Ideas on Immunotherapy of Clinical Type 1 Diabetes: Lessons from Recent CD3 Antibody Trials

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Questioning Four Preconceived Ideas on Immunotherapy of Clinical Type 1 Diabetes: Lessons from Recent CD3 Antibody Trials

Publisher
SBDR - Society for Biomedical Diabetes Research
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2005
Source
PMC
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Biology
  • Design
  • Engineering
  • Medicine
License
Unknown

Abstract

Microsoft Word - Efrat_editorial_designed_030905.doc EDITORIAL www.The-RDS.org 6 DOI 10.1900/RDS.2005.2.6 T Insulin-Producing Cells from Tissue Stem/Progenitor Cells: Are Autologous Cells Preferable to Allogeneic? Shimon Efrat Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv, Tel Aviv, 69978 Israel, e-mail: [email protected] Keywords: cell engineering · graft rejection · stem/progenitor cells · cell encapsulation Introduction ype 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune destruct- tion of the pancreatic islet insulin-producing β- cells. Insulin administration does not prevent long- term complications of the disease, since the optimal insulin dosage is difficult to adjust. Replacement of the damaged cells with regulated insulin-producing cells is considered as the ultimate cure for type 1 diabetes. Transplantation of intact human pancreas or isolated islets has been severely limited by the scarcity of hu- man tissue donors, and the search is on for an abun- dant source of human insulin-producing cells. Isolated human islets have been difficult to expand in tissue culture without partial or complete loss of function. Recent progress in stem cell biology has fanned hopes for the generation of regulated insulin-producing cells by differentiation from various sources of stem/pro- genitor cells. There are 2 major types of stem cells: embryonic stem (ES) cells, and tissue-derived stem cells. ES cells are pluripotent cells which can be easily propagated in tissue culture. Their spontaneous differentiation in vitro generates, among many cell types, a small percentage of insulin-producing cells [1, 2]. However, despite ef- forts to isolate these differentiated cells [3, 4], or stimu- late their generation by various protocols [5], evidence is still lacking in support of their efficacy and safety in experimental models. A second type of ste

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