The review covers recent developments in which quantum dots (QDs) are combined with electrodes for detection of analytes. Special focus will be on the generation of photocurrents and the possibility of spatially resolved, light-directed analysis. Different modes for combining biochemical reactions with QDs will be discussed. Other applications involve the use of QDs as labels in binding analysis. Different methods have been developed for read-out. In addition to photocurrent analysis, voltammetric detection of metals and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) can be used. In the latter, light is the sensor signal. ECL-based systems combine the advantage of very sensitive analytical detection with rather simple instrumentation.