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Quantum confinement and its related effects on the critical size of GeO2 nanoparticles anodes for lithium batteries.

Authors
  • Son, Yoonkook
  • Park, Mihee
  • Son, Yeonguk
  • Lee, Jung-Soo
  • Jang, Ji-Hyun
  • Kim, Youngsik
  • Cho, Jaephil
Type
Published Article
Journal
Nano Letters
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Feb 12, 2014
Volume
14
Issue
2
Pages
1005–1010
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/nl404466v
PMID: 24392754
Source
Medline
License
Unknown

Abstract

This work has been performed to determine the critical size of the GeO2 nanoparticle for lithium battery anode applications and identify its quantum confinement and its related effects on the electrochemical performance. GeO2 nanoparticles with different sizes of ∼ 2, ∼ 6, ∼ 10, and ∼ 35 nm were prepared by adjusting the reaction rate, controlling the reaction temperature and reactant concentration, and using different solvents. Among the different sizes of the GeO2 nanoparticles, the ∼ 6 nm sized GeO2 showed the best electrochemical performance. Unexpectedly smaller particles of the ∼ 2 nm sized GeO2 showed the inferior electrochemical performances compared to those of the ∼ 6 nm sized one. This was due to the low electrical conductivity of the ∼ 2 nm sized GeO2 caused by its quantum confinement effect, which is also related to the increase in the charge transfer resistance. Those characteristics of the smaller nanoparticles led to poor electrochemical performances, and their relationships were discussed.

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