Since its first demonstration, stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy has become a powerful chemical imaging tool that shows promise in numerous biological and biomedical applications. The spectroscopic capability of SRS enables identification and tracking of specific molecules or classes of molecules, often without labeling. SRS microscopy also has the hallmark advantage of signal strength that is directly proportional to molecular concentration, allowing for in situ quantitative analysis of chemical composition of heterogeneous samples with submicron spatial resolution and subminute temporal resolution. However, it is important to recognize that quantification through SRS microscopy requires assumptions regarding both system and sample. Such assumptions are often taken axiomatically, which may lead to erroneous conclusions without proper validation. In this review, we focus on the tacitly accepted, yet complex, quantitative aspect of SRS microscopy. We discuss the various approaches to quantitative analysis, examples of such approaches, challenges in different systems, and potential solutions. Through our examination of published literature, we conclude that a scrupulous approach to experimental design can further expand the powerful and incisive quantitative capabilities of SRS microscopy.