150 serum samples (reactive in VDRL, Reiter-ELISA, FTA-Abs tests), from male patients 25-45 years old, in various stages of syphilis whether treated or untreated, were tested for IgD by SRID. On 154 sera from healthy males 25-45 years old, the reference normal values for IgD levels were established, as: 0-131.2 IU/ml with a mean of 29.92 +/- 29.61 IU/ml. Cardiolipin and group treponemal fraction values for IgD class were obtained by assessing the difference between the immunodiffusion diameter values produced by sera before and after complete absorption with VDRL antigen or delipidated T. reiteri suspension. The individual, mean +/- SD values (expressed in IU/ml) and the percentage of cardiolipin and treponemal IgD of the total IgD class were calculated for each stage. The mean value of the total IgD class, excepting secondary syphilis (sigma 2) 52.53 +/- 26.66 IU/ml), did not overstep the normal levels but all minimal individual values from syphilitic patients (7.09-14.89 IU/ml) surpassed significantly the normal minimal values which were less than or equal to 3.54 IU/ml. The total lack of cardiolipin (IgD and the presence of group treponemal IgD in all sera of the syphilis stages studied were manifest. The group treponemal IgD mean values ranged between 7-9 IU/ml, with a maximum of 19.32 +/- 10.58 IU/ml in sigma 2 followed by latent syphilis (sigma lat) with a mean value of 9.37 +/- 4.9 IU/ml. A significant percentage of treponemal IgD vs total IgD was recorded: primary syphilis (sigma 1) 32.01%, primary-secondary syphilis (sigma 1-2) 28.76%, sigma 2 36.77%, sigma lat and treated persistent seroreactive syphilis (sigma t+) 29.61%. The high proportion of treponemal IgD in latent and treated persistent reactive syphilis suggests a steady activation of B lymphocytes by treponemal antigens and presumably is an expression of an active infectious process. The absence of cardiolipin IgD and the presence of only the treponemal IgD, in all sera from all stages, might confer to their detection an extremely specific diagnostic value in syphilis.