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Quantificação de fluoreto ingerido pela dieta utilizando questionário de frequência alimentar e concentração de fluoreto nas unhas em crianças de 1 a 3 anos de idade

  • Salama, Isabel Cristina Cabral de Assis
Publication Date
Dec 05, 2018
Repositório Institucional UNESP
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Objective: To evaluate fluoride (F) intake by 1-3 year-old children from the diet, as well as F concentrations in fingernails and toenails. Methods: Children (n=202) 12 months old, participants in a preventive program for infants, had their F ingestion monitored by means of the application of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), composed of 70 items, divided into 9 groups of foodstuff. The FFQ was applied during 2 years, every 3 months, along with the collection of nails and water samples used for drinking and food preparation. The concentration of F in the diet, nails, and water was determined with an ion-specific electrode, after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated microdiffusion or by the direct method. The data obtained were submitted to the 2-way analysis of variance criteria followed by the Student-Newman-Keuls, and by Spearman correlation coefficient (p<0.05). Results: The average ingestion of F by diet and water was significantly higher from 12 to 24 months (0.015 mg F/Kg/day and 0.09 mg F/Kg/day) (p<0.05), decreasing after 27 months (0.011 mg F/Kg/day and 0.05 mg F/Kg/day) (p<0.05). At 36 months, a peak of F ingestion from the diet (0.013mg F /Kg/day) (p<0.05) was observed. There was a continuous increase in F levels in finger- and toenails, with a significant difference in some periods of the study (18 to 27 months, p<0.05); higher F concentrations were observed for fingernails over toenails (3.7 μg F/g; 3.4 μg F/g, respectively, p<0.05). No significant correlation was observed between the estimate of ingestion of fluoride related to the weight of the child (mg F/kg/day) and the fluoride in fingernails (Spearman‟s r = -0.024; p=0.396) or toenails (Spearman‟s r = -0.002; p=0.957). Conclusion: The ingestion of fluoride from the diet in 1-3 year-old children was shown to fall within safe limits, and the FFQ appears to be a satisfactory tool to estimate the ingestion of fluoride. Small variations of daily ingestion of F by diet were detected in the nails through the periods in the study (after 30 to 60 days)

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