Randomization, concealment of treatment allocation, blinding, and patient follow-up are key quality components of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The objective of this study was to assess the quality of RCTs in periodontology using these evidence-based components. Following a detailed search, screening and quality assessments of RCTs were conducted in duplicate and independently. The results showed that although 91% of trials were described as randomised, adequate methods for randomization and allocation concealment were found in 17% and 7% of studies, respectively. Blinding was adequate for the caregiver in 17% and for the examiner in 55% of studies. A clear accounting of all participants was present in 56% of reports. This rigorous systematic review revealed that the quality of RCTs in periodontology, judged by their publications, frequently does not meet recommended standards. If this quality is reflected in actual study conduct, fundamental errors could have a significant impact on the outcomes of these trials.