performance measures following oncologic procedures were significantly affected by comorbid conditions and by procedure acuity. Although the latter most strongly affects quality and performance indicators, both should weigh heavily in physician comparisons. The incidence of negative performance indicators was also influenced by the individual surgeon. These data may serve as a tool to evaluate and improve physician performance and outcomes and to develop risk-adjusted benchmarks. Ultimately, reimbursement may be tied to quantifiable measures of physician and institutional performance.