The present Swedish health surveillance programme includes 15 examinations by a nurse, 5 examinations by a physician, 7 assessments of development, 2 assessments of hearing and 1 assessment of visual acuity. The WHO criteria for evaluation of screening programmes can be applied to the Swedish health surveillance programme. These criteria state that the health problem must be important, that there should be an early phase during which the condition is only detectable by medical professionals and that treatment at an early phase should favourably affect the prognosis. The quality of evidence for fulfilment of these criteria has been graded I-III. Grade II-2 refers to evidence obtained from well-designed cohort or case-control analytical studies. The following disorders might be affected by health surveillance at child health centres: amblyopia, ADHD/DAMP, failure to thrive, cerebral palsy, congenital heart failure, congenital luxation of hip, hearing impairment (severe or moderate), mental retardation, retentio testis and hydrocephalus. None of these conditions fulfils the WHO criteria with quality of evidence grade II-2 or better. Thus the evidence for the present Swedish health surveillance programmed is problematic.