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Q-Switch Nd:YAG Laser-Assisted Elimination of Multi-Species Biofilm on Titanium Surfaces

  • Namour, Melanie;
  • Verspecht, Tim; 111176;
  • El Mobadder, Marwan;
  • Teughels, Wim; 34705;
  • Peremans, Andre;
  • Nammour, Samir;
  • Rompen, Eric;
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2020
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(1) Background: The relatively high prevalence of peri-implantitis (PI) and the lack of a standard method for decontamination of the dental implant surface have pushed us to conduct further research in the field. Bacterial biofilms were found to play a primordial role in the etiology of PI. Therefore, the aim is to evaluate the efficacy of a laser-assisted elimination of biofilm protocol in the removal of a multi-species biofilm on titanium surfaces. (2) Methods: In total, 52 titanium discs (grade 4) were used. The study group consisted of 13 titanium disks contaminated with multi-species biofilms and subsequently irradiated with the laser (T + BF + L). The control groups consisted of the following types of titanium disks: 13 contaminated with multi-species biofilms (T + BF), 13 sterile and irradiated (T + L), 13 sterile and untreated (T). Q-Switch Nd:YAG laser Irradiation parameters were the following: energy density equal to 0.597 J/cm2 per pulse, power equal to 270 milliwatt per pulse, 2.4 mm of spot diameter, and 10 Hz repetition rate for pulse duration of six nanoseconds (ns). The laser irradiation was made during 2 s of total time in non-contact and at 0.5 mm away from the titanium disc surface. After treatment, presence of biofilms on the disks was evaluated by staining with crystal violet (CV), which was measured as optical density at six hundred thirty nm, and statistical analyses were done. (3) Results: the optical density values were 0.004 ± 0.004 for the study group T + BF + L, 0.120 ± 0.039 for group T + BF, 0.006 ± 0.003 for group T + L, and 0.007 ± 0.007 for group T. For the study group, laser treatment resulted in a total elimination of the biofilm, with mean values statistically significantly lower than those of contaminated titanium surfaces and similar to those of sterile titanium surfaces. (4) Conclusions: Our irradiation protocol provided a significant elimination of the multi-species biofilm on titanium surfaces. Laser treated titanium surfaces were biofilm-free, similar to the sterile ones. / status: published

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