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QM/MM study of energy storage and molecular rearrangements due to the primary event in vision.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biophysical Journal
0006-3495
Publisher
Elsevier
Publication Date
Volume
87
Issue
5
Pages
2931–2941
Identifiers
PMID: 15339806
Source
Medline

Abstract

The energy storage and the molecular rearrangements due to the primary photochemical event in rhodopsin are investigated by using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics hybrid methods in conjunction with high-resolution structural data of bovine visual rhodopsin. The analysis of the reactant and product molecular structures reveals the energy storage mechanism as determined by the detailed molecular rearrangements of the retinyl chromophore, including rotation of the (C11-C12) dihedral angle from -11 degrees in the 11-cis isomer to -161 degrees in the all-trans product, where the preferential sense of rotation is determined by the steric interactions between Ala-117 and the polyene chain at the C13 position, torsion of the polyene chain due to steric constraints in the binding pocket, and stretching of the salt bridge between the protonated Schiff base and the Glu-113 counterion by reorientation of the polarized bonds that localize the net positive charge at the Schiff-base linkage. The energy storage, computed at the ONIOM electronic-embedding approach (B3LYP/6-31G*:AMBER) level of theory and the S0-->S1 electronic-excitation energies for the dark and product states, obtained at the ONIOM electronic-embedding approach (TD-B3LYP/6-31G*//B3LYP/6-31G*:AMBER) level of theory, are in very good agreement with experimental data. These results are particularly relevant to the development of a first-principles understanding of the structure-function relations in prototypical G-protein-coupled receptors.

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