Brain abscesses have been one of the most challenging lesions, both for surgeons and internists. From the beginning of the computed tomography (CT) era, the diagnosis and treatment of these entities have become easier and less invasive. The outcomes have become better with the improvement of diagnostic techniques, neurosurgery, and broad-spectrum antibiotics. Atypical bacterial abscesses are more often due to chemotherapy usage in oncology, long life expectancy in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and immunosuppression in conjunction with organ transplantation. Surgical treatment options showed no significant difference with respect to mortality levels, but lower morbidity rates were achieved with stereotactically guided aspiration. Decompression with stereotactically guided aspiration, antibiotic therapy based on results of pus culture, and repeated aspirations if indicated from results of periodic CT follow-up scans seem to be the most appropriate treatment modality for brain abscesses. Immunosuppression and comorbidities, initial neurological status, and intraventricular rupture were significant factors influencing the outcomes of patients. The pitfalls and evolution in the diagnosis and treatment of brain abscesses are discussed in this study.