The prevalence of many chronic diseases which have been associated with poor nutrition may be reduced by the positive modulation of colonic microbiota. In this study, we assess the effects of purple sweet potato polyphenols (PSP) in a mixed culture of swine fecal bacteria during in vitro colonic fermentation using pig colonic digest. Jar fermenters were used to conduct a small scale in vitro colonic fermentation experiments under the anaerobic condition for 48 h. Jar fermenters were assigned to one of the following groups: Cellulose, cellulose + PSP, inulin, and inulin + PSP. The present study revealed that the polyphenolic content of purple sweet potato could modulate the colonic microbiota by differentially increasing the population of beneficial bacteria and decreasing the pathogenic bacteria depending on cellulose and inulin. Accordingly, PSP might be a material conducive for improving the conditions for the fermentation of partly-fermentable dietary fiber. Besides, PSP was also responsible for the drastic reduction of putrefactive products, especially p-cresol to a significant level. Our results suggest that PSP could alter the microbial composition depending upon the fermentability of dietary fiber and has the potential to maintain a stable and healthy colonic environment that will ultimately alleviate chronic diseases development and confer health benefits to the host.