Cancer is a complex expression of an altered state of cellular differentiation associated with severe clinical repercussions. The effort to characterize this pathological entity to understand its underlying mechanisms and visualize potential therapeutic strategies has been constant. In this context, some cellular (enhanced duplication, immunological evasion), metabolic (aerobic glycolysis, failure in DNA repair mechanisms) and physiological (circadian disruption) parameters have been considered as cancer hallmarks. The list of these hallmarks has been growing in recent years, since it has been demonstrated that various physiological systems misfunction in well-characterized ways upon the onset and establishment of the carcinogenic process. This is the case with the purinergic system, a signaling pathway formed by nucleotides/nucleosides (mainly adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine (ADO) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)) with their corresponding membrane receptors and defined transduction mechanisms. The dynamic equilibrium between ATP and ADO, which is accomplished by the presence and regulation of a set of ectonucleotidases, defines the pro-carcinogenic or anti-cancerous final outline in tumors and cancer cell lines. So far, the purinergic system has been recognized as a potential therapeutic target in cancerous and tumoral ailments.