Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) was purified from infected potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) with yields of 0.4-0.6 mg/kg of foliage. The virus sedimented as a single component of 127 S. An antiserum prepared against purified virus had a maximum titer of 1:1024 in agar gel double diffusion tests. PLRV had a buoyant density of 1.39 g/ml and an estimated nucleic acid content of 28%. The nucleic acid had a molecular weight of 2.0 x 10(6) and was degraded by RNase but not by DNase, indicating that the PLRV nucleic acid is RNA. The sedimentation coefficient of the RNA molecule was 34.5 S and after treatment with formaldehyde, 20.7 S. Dissociated coat protein migrated as a single band in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the average subunit molecular weight was 26,300. PLRV should be considered a member of the luteovirus group.