The predominant form of phosphorylase phosphatase activity in porcine renal cortical extracts was a polycation-stimulated protein phosphatase. This activity was present in extracts in a high-molecular-weight form which could be converted to a free catalytic subunit by treatment with ethanol, urea, or freezing and thawing in the presence of beta-mercaptoethanol. The catalytic subunit of the polycation-stimulated phosphatase was purified by chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, heparin-Sepharose, and Sephadex G-75. The phosphatase appeared to be homogeneous on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme had an apparent Mr of 35 000 on gel filtration and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified phosphatase could be stimulated by histone H1, protamine, poly(D-lysine), poly(L-lysine) or polybrene utilizing phosphorylase a as the substrate. It preferentially dephosphorylated the alpha-subunit of phosphorylase kinase. The phosphatase was highly sensitive to inhibition by ATP. These results suggest that the renal polycation-stimulated phosphatase catalytic subunit is very similar to or identical with the skeletal muscle phosphatase form which has been previously designated phosphatase-2Ac.