A hemolysin produced by a strain of Aeromonas hydrophila isolated from a patient with diarrhea was purified by acid precipitation and quarternary aminoethyl-Sephadex chromatography. The molecular weight of the hemolysin was estimated at 50,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and at 48,000 by Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. In polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 4.0 and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, the hemolysin migrated as a single band, whereas electrophoresis at pH 9.4 and thin-layer isoelectric focusing demonstrated multiple bands. The results may indicate charge isomers of the hemolysin. The purified hemolysin had a hemolytic activity of 134 hemolytic units per microgram of protein on rabbit erythrocytes. It caused fluid accumulation in infant mouse intestines and rabbit ligated ileal loops. Purified hemolysin also elicited cytotoxicity to Vero cells and lethal toxicity to mice. All these biological activities were lost on heating for 5 min at 56 degrees C. These findings support the notion that A. hydrophila hemolysin is a cytotoxic enterotoxin.