A new coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase from the anaerobe Clostridium aminobutyricum catalyzing the formation of 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA from 4-hydroxybutyrate and acetyl-CoA is described. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity by standard techniques, including fast protein liquid chromatography under aerobic conditions. Its molecular mass was determined to be 110 kDa, and that of the only subunit was determined to be 54 kDa, indicating a homodimeric structure. Besides acetate and acetyl-CoA, the following substrates were detected (in order of decreasing kcat/Km): 4-hydroxybutyryl-CoA, butyryl-CoA and propionyl-CoA, vinyl-acetyl-CoA (3-butenoyl-CoA), and 5-hydroxyvaleryl-CoA. In an indirect assay the corresponding acids were also found to be substrates; however, DL-lactate, DL-2-hydroxybutyrate, DL-3-hydroxybutyrate, crotonate, and various dicarboxylates were not.