Submitochondrial particles were prepared from bovine heart mitochondria, solubilized with Triton X-114 in the presence of lipids and submitted to hydroxylapatite chromatography. The eluate obtained, containing a mixture of mitochondrial carriers, was processed further by affinity chromatography using as ligand p-aminophenylsuccinate coupled via a diazo bond to aminohexyl-Sepharose 4B. The activity of the dicarboxylate exchanger was measured after reconstitution into asolectin vesicles at each step of the purification procedure. All samples studied were found to display substrate and inhibitor specificity similar to those described for the dicarboxylate carrier in mitochondria. The specific activity of the final material eluted from the affinity column was found to be about 1000-times higher than that of the Triton X-114 extract of submitochondrial particles. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the affinity chromatography eluate showed the presence of only two polypeptides.