Globally, Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the top 10 causes of death. In Nepal, poverty and malnutrition aggravate the burden of TB. To identify Mycobacterium tuberculosis sputum is the best sample to identify the bacterium which is helpful for diagnosis. The aim of this study is to identify the situation, burden and challenges of pulmonary tuberculosis in low-middle income country like Nepal. A retrospective-audit with reliable-secondary-data of one year was collected (n = 4131). Descriptive-analysis was performed using frequency, percentage and analytical using chi-square-test. Level of significance was set at p < 0.05. Ethical Approval was obtained from IRC-PAHS. The prevalence of notified/suspected cases was highest among the patients having >60 years of age 1344(32.54%) and least among the patients with ≤15 years of age 239(5.79%). The male had 1.67 times more smear-positive pulmonary TB cases. Among the AFB-positive cases, smear 3+ was seen in most of the cases 69(38.54%) followed by smear 1+ and smear 2+ in 56(31.28%) and 54(30.16%) respectively. The prevalence of smear-positive pulmonary TB case is higher in male. Smear 3+ is seen in most of the followed by smear 1+ and smear 2+. The Burden of Pulmonary TB is more among adult and old-age-people and its control is a challenge for developing and low-middle income countries like Nepal. © 2020 The Author(s).