Pulmonary manifestations are frequently observed in children, pregnant women and travellers with malaria. The pathophysiology of these pulmonary manifestations is poorly understood but would appear to be secondary to an interaction between the parasitized red cells and the pulmonary capillary endothelium. Bronchitis and pneumonia do not directly compromise outcome but, left unrecognized, the delay in diagnosis and treatment may be fatal. Acute respiratory distress in children is the first cause of overmortality, coming before neurological involvement. The acute respiratory distress caused by severe malaria has no specific characteristics. Iatrogenic complications and pulmonary superinfections must be differentiated. The prevention of pulmonary manifestations associated with malaria can easily be accomplished by limiting water intake and carefully monitoring urinary output and weight. Treatment is the same as for acute flare-ups in combination with symptomatic respiratory treatment when required.