A report of pulmonary edema following acute upper airway obstruction in an adult is presented, and the literature involving 25 additional cases is reviewed. This form of pulmonary edema appears to be related to markedly negative intrathoracic pressure due to forced inspiration against a closed upper airway resulting in transudation of fluid from pulmonary capillaries to the interstitium. Postanesthetic laryngospasm is the most common cause of pulmonary edema in adults (11/26 cases). The edema usually clears rapidly with supportive care. Aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic interventions may be avoided if the syndrome is recognized. Maintenance of oxygenation and a patent airway are the mainstays of treatment.