Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a crucial role in many processes. In cells, it is mediated by diverse RNA-binding proteins. These proteins can influence mRNA stability, translation, and localization. The PUF protein family (Pumilio and FBF) is composed of RNA-binding proteins highly conserved among most eukaryotic organisms. Previous investigations indicated that they could be involved in many processes by binding corresponding motifs in the 3UTR or by interacting with other proteins. To date, most of the investigations on PUF proteins have been focused on Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while only a few have been conducted on Arabidopsis thaliana. The present article provides an overview of the PUF protein family. It addresses their RNA-binding motifs, biological functions, and post-transcriptional control mechanisms in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Arabidopsis thaliana. These items of knowledge open onto new investigations into the relevance of PUF proteins in specific plant developmental processes.