Twenty-one patients were seen with puerperal sepsis owing to group B streptococci (GBS), resulting in an attack rate of 2/1,000 deliveries. Most were young primiparous black women from a population with a known high incidence of GBS carriage. The association among abdominal delivery, endometritis, and puerperal sepsis was striking. Cultures of the birth canal or lochia were commonly positive for the same serotype recovered from the blood. Forty-seven patients with nonbacteremic GBS infections were seen; 27 had endometritis or amnionitis. Twenty patients had GBS urinary tract infection: Eight infections occurred prenatally, seven at delivery, and five post partum. Seven neonates developed serious GBS infections; intrauterine exposure occurred in at least four cases. Fetal exposure to GBS also occurred in three of four cases in which parturients with GBS bacteremia were delivered of their infants by cesarean section. Because of the high incidence of puerperal and perinatal GBS infections in this population, antibiotic prophylaxis regimens may be beneficial.