Schistosoma haematobium-related morbidity was studied in the perennial irrigation area of Office du Niger and the small reservoirs area of Plateau Dogon in Mali. Questionnaire, clinical, parasitologic, and ultrasound examination data were collected from 1,041 individuals at the baseline survey in 1991; 705 were re-examined one year after treatment. At baseline, the overall prevalence of S. haematobium infection was 55.2%; half of those infected had no clinical symptoms and 30% had pathologic lesions. Both infection and morbidity were more frequent in children than in adults, with a peak prevalence at 7-14 years of age. The rates of lesions were more than twice as high in those heavily infected as in lightly infected individuals. Reagent strip testing for microhematuria was more sensitive in detecting individuals with pathologic lesions than in detecting individuals with infection. One year after treatment with praziquantel, more than 80% of the urinary tract lesions had cleared. It is concluded that S. haematobium-related morbidity is frequent in Mali, but passive case detection for treatment would not cover a great deal of early stages of the disease; active intervention using reagent strip testing for microhematuria at the most peripheral levels would be an efficient system for morbidity control and monitoring of control operations.