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p-type doping efficiency in CdTe: Influence of second phase formation.

Authors
  • McCoy, Jedidiah J1
  • Swain, Santosh K1
  • Sieber, John R2
  • Diercks, David R3
  • Gorman, Brian P3
  • Lynn, Kelvin G1
  • 1 Center for Materials Research, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington 99164, USA.
  • 2 National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, USA.
  • 3 Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of Applied Physics
Publisher
AIP Publishing
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2018
Volume
123
Issue
16
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1063/1.5002144
PMID: 29725138
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Cadmium telluride (CdTe) high purity, bulk, crystal ingots doped with phosphorus were grown by the vertical Bridgman melt growth technique to understand and improve dopant solubility and activation. Large net carrier densities have been reproducibly obtained from as-grown ingots, indicating successful incorporation of dopants into the lattice. However, net carrier density values are orders of magnitude lower than the solubility of P in CdTe as reported in literature, 1018/cm3 to 1019/cm3 [J. H. Greenberg, J. Cryst. Growth 161, 1-11 (1996) and R. B. Hall and H. H. Woodbury, J. Appl. Phys. 39(12), 5361-5365 (1968)], despite comparable starting charge dopant densities. Growth conditions, such as melt stoichiometry and post growth cooling, are shown to have significant impacts on dopant solubility. This study demonstrates that a significant portion of the dopant becomes incorporated into second phase defects as compounds of cadmium and phosphorous, such as cadmium phosphide, which inhibits dopant incorporation into the lattice and limits maximum attainable net carrier density in bulk crystals. Here, we present an extensive study on the characteristics of these second phase defects in relation to their composition and formation kinetics while providing a pathway to minimize their formation and enhance solubility.

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