In children and adolescents from developed countries, obesity prevalence has strongly increased in the last decades and insulin resistance and impaired glucose tolerance are frequently observed. Some dietary components such as low glycemic index foods and dietary fibre could be used in order to improve glucose homeostasis in these children. Psyllium or ispaghula husk (the husk of the seeds of Plantago ovata) is a mixture of neutral and acid polysaccharides containing galacturonic acid with a ratio of soluble/insoluble fibre of 70/30. Some foods could potentially be enriched with psyllium, like breads, breakfast cereals, pasta and snack foods. The aim of this review was to assess the usefulness of psyllium in the management of obese children and adolescents with abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. After psyllium supplementation, the percentage change in postprandial glucose in type 2 diabetes patients, ranged from -12.2 to -20.2%. In hypercholesterolemic children, the effect of psyllium in LDL-cholesterol serum concentrations ranged from 2.78 to -22.8%; the effect in HDL-cholesterol from -4.16 to 3.05%; and the effect on triglycerides from 8.49 to -19.54%. The reviewed evidence seems to show that psyllium improves glucose homeostasis and the lipid and lipoprotein profile; however, more well controlled trials and further studies are needed to clarify it's effects and the mechanisms involved.