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Proximal tibial osteotomy for genu varum: Radiological evaluation of deformity correction with a plate vs external fixator

Authors
  • Ghasemi, S Ali
  • Zhang, David T
  • Fragomen, Austin
  • Rozbruch, S Robert
Type
Published Article
Journal
World Journal of Orthopedics
Publisher
Baishideng Publishing Group Co (World Journal of Orthopedics)
Publication Date
Mar 18, 2021
Volume
12
Issue
3
Pages
140–151
Identifiers
DOI: 10.5312/wjo.v12.i3.140
PMID: 33816141
PMCID: PMC7995338
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Retrospective Study
License
Green

Abstract

BACKGROUND High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a well-known procedure for the correction of knee varus. The purpose of this study was to compare the radiological results and accuracy of deformity correction performed using two different techniques: acute opening wedge correction using a plate and gradual correction with a monolateral external fixator. AIM To compare of the radiological results of two different techniques: acute opening wedge correction (a plate and screw) and gradual correction (external fixator). METHODS A total of 43 patients with plates and 36 patients with external fixators were included. All patients had moderate uniplanar varus deformities. We measured radiographic parameters, including the mechanical axis deviation (MAD), medial proximal tibial angle (MPTA), Caton-Deschamps Index (CDI), posterior proximal tibial angle, and joint line obliquity angle (JLOA). The accuracy of MAD correction was calculated based on a correction goal of neutral or overcorrection for medial compartment arthritis. RESULTS Demographics including age, body mass index, sex, and preoperative deformities were similar between the groups. The MAD significantly improved from 23.6 mm medial to the midline (SD = 8.2 mm) to 6.9 mm lateral to the midline (SD = 5.4 mm) ( P < 0.001). The accuracy of MAD correction did not differ between the groups and was 96.1% (SD = 8.1%) in the plate group and 98.2% (SD = 5.2%) in the external fixator group ( P = 0.18). The MPTA significantly improved from 83.9° (SD = 2.9°) to 90.9° (SD = 3.3°) ( P < 0.001), and the change was similar between the groups. Differences were noted in patella height, with a CDI change of -19.2% (SD = 13.7%) and 3.1% (SD = 8.0%) for the plate and external fixator groups, respectively ( P < 0.001). The change in JLOA was 1.6 degrees (SD = 1.1 degrees) and 0.9 degrees (SD = 0.9 degrees) for the plate and external fixator groups, respectively ( P = 0.04). CONCLUSION Reliable correction of moderate varus alignment was achieved with both the acute opening wedge technique with a plate and the gradual monolateral external fixator technique. The patellar height decreased with the open wedge plate technique. Joint line obliquity decreased to a greater degree with the open wedge plate technique, perhaps as a result of medial collateral ligament release. The appropriate technique should be selected based on surgeon and patient preferences; however, external fixation may be a better choice when the preservation of patellar height is deemed important.

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