Case report. Describe the clinical and radiological outcomes of a patient with a piezo-type mechanosensitive ion channel component 2 (PIEZO2)-deficient arthrogryposis receiving surgery for severe kyphoscoliosis. Spinal deformity is a characteristic feature of arthrogryposis due to PIEZO2 gene deficiency, for which surgical correction is indicated when the deformity is progressive to avoid neurological deficits and respiratory impairment. However, there exist few reports on the surgical treatment of spinal deformity in PIEZO2-deficient arthrogryposis, and no therapeutic standards have been established. We retrospectively reviewed a case of proximal junctional kyphosis after posterior spinal fusion for severe kyphoscoliosis in PIEZO2-deficient arthrogryposis. The patient was a 13-year-old girl with PIEZO2-deficient arthrogryposis who underwent posterior spinal fusion with an all-pedicle screw construct from T2 to L2 for a preoperative main thoracic curve Cobb angle of 78° and thoracic kyphotic angle of 83°. Postoperative Cobb angle of the main thoracic curve and thoracic kyphotic angle were improved at 11° and 34°, respectively. Although revision surgery was required for neurological deficits from proximal junctional kyphosis, she could walk with a crutch and improvements in clinical questionnaire scores were noted at 2 years and 3 months after surgery. Based on the present case, posterior spinal fusion represents a good treatment option for severe spinal deformity in PIEZO2-deficient arthrogryposis. Careful consideration of fusion level is needed to prevent proximal junctional kyphosis. 5.