The aim of the Osteoporosis Prevention Through Impact and Muscle-loading Approaches to Exercise trial is to compare the bone response to two known osteogenic stimuli - impact loading exercise and resistance training. Specifically, we will examine the effect of a 10-month, twice-weekly, high-intensity impact loading exercise intervention and a 10-month, twice-weekly, high-intensity resistance training intervention on bone mass and strength at clinically important skeletal sites. The intervention groups will be compared against a home-based 'positive' control group. Safety and acceptability of each exercise modality will also be determined. Sedentary otherwise healthy young women aged 18-30 years with bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores less than or equal to 0 at the hip and lumbar spine, screened for conditions and medications that influence bone and physical function, will be recruited. Eligible participants are randomised to 10-month, twice-weekly, either supervised high-intensity impact training, high-intensity resistance training or a home-based 'positive' control group. The primary outcome measure will be lumbar spine areal BMD, while secondary outcome measures will include: whole body, femoral neck and regional measures (upper and lower limb) of bone, muscle and fat; anthropometrics; muscle strength and power; quality of life and exercise safety, enjoyment and acceptability. All outcome measures will be conducted at baseline (T0) and 10 months (T10) and will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle and per protocol. The study has been granted ethical approval from the Griffith University Human Research Ethics Committee (GU Ref: 2015/775). Standard scientific reporting practices will occur, including publication in peer-reviewed journals. Participant confidentiality will be maintained in all forms of reporting. ACTRN12616001444471. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.