Neurodegenerative diseases are a major burden for our society, affecting millions of people worldwide. A main goal of past and current research is to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms underlying proteotoxicity, a common theme among these incurable and debilitating conditions. Cell proteome alteration is considered to be one of the main driving forces that triggers neurodegeneration, and unraveling the biological complexity behind the affected molecular pathways constitutes a daunting challenge. This review summarizes the current state on key processes that lead to cellular proteotoxicity in Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, providing a comprehensive landscape of recent literature. A foundational understanding of how proteotoxicity affects disease etiology and progression may provide essential insight towards potential targets amenable of therapeutic intervention.