Ethylene (ET) is a volatile hormone that modulates fruit ripening, plant growth, development and stress responses. Key components of the ET-signaling pathway identified by genetic dissection in Arabidopsis thaliana include five ET receptors, the negative regulator CTR1 and the positive regulator EIN2, all of which localize to the endoplasmic reticulum. Mechanisms of signaling among these proteins are still unresolved and targets of ET responses are not fully known. So, we used mass spectrometry to identify proteins in microsomal membrane preparations from etiolated A. thaliana seedlings maintained in ambient air or treated with ET for 3 h. We compared 3814 proteins from ET-exposed seedlings and controls and identified 304 proteins with significant accumulation changes. The proteins with increased accumulation were involved in ET biosynthesis, cell morphogenesis, oxidative stress and vesicle secretion while those with decreased accumulation were ribosomal proteins and proteins positively regulated by brassinosteroid, another hormone involved in cell elongation. Several proteins, including EIN2, appeared to be differentially phosphorylated upon ET treatment, which suggests that the activity or stability of these proteins may be controlled by phosphorylation. TUA3, a component of microtubules that contributes to cellular morphological change, exhibited both increased accumulation and differential phosphorylation upon ET treatment. To verify the role of TUA3 in the ET response, tua3 mutants were evaluated. Mutant seedlings had altered ET-associated growth movements. The data indicate that ET perception leads to rapid proteomic change and that these changes are an important part of signaling and development. The data serve as a foundation for exploring ET signaling through systems biology.