We report the establishment of two novel clear cell sarcoma (CCS) cell lines (soft tissue melanoma) from a patient and the production of the corresponding xenografts after xenotransplantation of those cells to NOD/SCID mice. As no comprehensive study on the relevant proteomes of this type of cancer has been reported to date, proteomics technologies were applied in a first attempt to analyze the proteins of the two cell lines and their corresponding primary xenografts. Total protein extracts were separated by two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and analysed by MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS-MS following in-gel digestion with trypsin. Protein identification was carried out by peptide mass fingerprint (PMF) and post source decay (PSD), respectively. Comparative analysis revealed that 124 proteins were common between the cell lines and the xenografts; 249 proteins were found to be expressed only in the proteome of the cell lines, while 178 proteins were expressed only in the proteome of xenografts. Our results demonstrated that both cell lines and xenografts were positive for vimentin and S100 reported as markers for CCS. After functional analysis, 27 different protein groups were identified in the analysed proteomes, including apoptosis-related proteins, oncogenes and several proteins closely related to TP-53 and NF-kappa B pathways. Furthermore, the proteins nestin, stem cell growth factor CLC11 and mdr-1, closely related to malignant-melanoma-initiating cells, were found to be expressed in both the cell lines and their corresponding xenografts. Since there are no data concerning protein expression in CCS, this study may contribute to the understanding of the molecular basis of the disease, while the cell lines as well as the developed xenografts may be used as tools for the development of new therapeutic strategies to tackle this rare but fatal malignancy.