Four structural proteins of Lelystad virus (Arteriviridae) were recognized by monoclonal antibodies in a Western immunoblotting experiment with purified virus. In addition to the 18-kDa integral membrane protein M and the 15-kDa nucleocapsid protein N, two new structural proteins with molecular masses of 45 to 50 kDa and 31 to 35 kDa, respectively, were detected. Monoclonal antibodies that recognized proteins of 45 to 50 kDa and 31 to 35 kDa immunoprecipitated similar proteins expressed from open reading frames (ORFs) 3 and 4 in baculovirus recombinants, respectively. Therefore, the 45- to 50-kDa protein is encoded by ORF3 and the 31- to 35-kDa protein is encoded by ORF4. Peptide-N-glycosidase F digestion of purified virus reduced the 45- to 50-kDa and 31- to 35-kDa proteins to core proteins of 29 and 16 kDa, respectively, which indicates N glycosylation of these proteins in the virion. Monoclonal antibodies specific for the 31- to 35-kDa protein neutralized Lelystad virus, which indicates that at least part of this protein is exposed at the virion surface. We propose that the 45- to 50-kDa and 31- to 35-kDa structural proteins of Lelystad virus be named GP3 and GP4, to reflect their glycosylation and the ORFs from which they are expressed. Antibodies specific for GP3 and GP4 were detected by a Western immunoblotting assay in swine serum after an infection with Lelystad virus.