Protein methylation has been proposed as an important post-translational modification, which occurs predominantly on lysine and arginine residues. Recent discoveries have revealed that protein methylation is also present on non-histones besides histones, and plays critical roles in regulating protein stability and function. However, proteome-wide identification of methylated proteins in plants remains unexplored. Here, we present the first global survey of monomethyl arginine, symmetric and asymmetric dimethyl arginine, and monomethyl, dimethyl, trimethyl lysine modifications in the proteomes of 10-day-old Arabidopsis seedlings through a combination of immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry analysis. In total, we identified 617 methylation sites which mapped to 412 proteins, with 263 proteins harboring 381 lysine methylation sites and 149 proteins harboring 236 arginine methylation sites. Among them, 607 methylation sites on 408 proteins were novel findings. Motif analysis revealed that glycine preferentially flanked methylated arginine residues, whereas aspartate and glutamate enriched around mono- and dimethylated lysine sites. Methylated proteins were involved in a variety of metabolic processes, showing significant enrichment in RNA-related metabolic pathways including spliceosome, RNA transport, and ribosome. Our data provide a global view of methylated non-histone proteins in Arabidopsis, laying foundations for elucidating the biological function of protein methylation in plants. SIGNIFICANCE: Protein methylation has emerged as a common and important modification both in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The identification of methylated sites/peptides is fundamental for further functional analysis of protein methylation. This study was the first proteome-scale identification of lysine and arginine methylation in plants. We found that methylation occurred widely on non-histone proteins in Arabidopsis and was involved in diverse biological functions. The results provide foundations for the investigation of the protein methylome in Arabidopsis and provide powerful resources for the functional analysis of protein methylation in plants. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.