Protein C and protein S serve as natural anticoagulants. Deficiencies of these proteins are often associated with recurrent deep vein thrombosis and coumarin induced skin necrosis. These two proteins function by selectively inactivating factors Va and VIIIa, two of the "cofactors" of blood coagulation. Hence, inhibition of coagulation by this pathway complements the better known inhibition mediated by the antithrombin III-heparin system. These observations suggest that protein C and/or activated protein C may prove useful in controlling thrombosis and/or DIC. We have developed a Ca2+ dependent monoclonal antibody which allows the rapid isolation of human protein C. This rapid isolation has allowed us to demonstrate that activated protein C can protect baboons from the lethal effects of E. coli/endotoxin and that protein C supplementation can minimize fibrinogen consumption following tissue factor infusion into dogs.