Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a chronic and fatal disease caused by Leishmania infantum in Brazil. Leukocyte recruitment to infected tissue is a crucial event for the control of infections such as VL. Leucotriens are lipid mediators synthesized by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) and they display a protective role against protozoan parasites by inducing several functions in leucocytes. We determined the role of 5-LO activity in parasite control, focusing on the inflammatory immune response against Leishmania infantum infection. LTB4 is released during in vitro infection. The genetic ablation of 5-LO promoted susceptibility in highly resistant mice strains, harboring more parasites into target organs. The susceptibility was related to the failure of neutrophil migration to the infectious foci. Investigating the neutrophil failure, there was a reduction of proinflammatory cytokines involved in the related Th17 axis released into the organs. Genetic ablation of 5-LO reduced the CD4(+)T cells producing IL-17, without interfering in Th1 subset. L. infantum failed to activate DC from 5-LO(-/-), showing reduced surface costimulatory molecule expression and proinflammatory cytokines involved in Th17 differentiation. BLT1 blockage with selective antagonist interferes with DC maturation and proinflammatory cytokines release. Thus, 5-LO activation coordinates the inflammatory immune response involved in the control of VL.