Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) induces a severe acute respiratory syndrome that is called COVID-19. Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 include diarrhea, pneumonia, lymphopenia, exhausted lymphocytes, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Immunology is part of the process of clinical evolution, but there are some questions around immunity-based protection: (1) why some infected people have only mild symptoms of the disease or are asymptomatic; (2) why delayed and weak antibody responses are associated with severe outcomes; and (3) why positivity in molecular tests does not represent protective antibody IgG. Perhaps T cell responses may be the key to solving those questions. SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells persist in peripheral blood and may be capable of providing effective information about protective immunity. The T cells studies can be helpful in elucidating the pathways for development of vaccines, therapies, and diagnostics for COVID-19 and for filling these immunology knowledge gaps. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.