Oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial roles in the development and progression of retinal diseases. Retinal damage by various etiologies can result in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), diabetic retinopathy (DR), and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). n-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids and are necessary for homeostasis. They are important retinal membrane components and are involved in energy storage. n-3 fatty acids also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and their suppressive effects against ROP, DR, and AMD have been previously evaluated. α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and their metabolites have been shown to alleviate retinal oxidative stress and inflammation involving various biological signaling pathways. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the n-3 fatty acids effects on the mechanisms of these retinal diseases and how they exert their therapeutic effects, focusing on ALA, EPA, DHA, and their metabolites. This knowledge may provide new remedial strategies for n-3 fatty acids in the prevention and treatment of retinal diseases associated with oxidative stress and inflammation.