Transcriptional activity of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) promoter in transfected HEK293 cells was determined by luciferase assays. Secreted CTGF in cultured human mesangial cells was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). CTGF in urine and plasma was also measured in 405 subjects with/without type 2 diabetes. Our results showed that high glucose significantly increased transcription of the promoter in the transfected cells by more than 2.5-folds (p < 0.0005). CTGF secretion was induced by high glucose in the cells (p < 0.0005). These increases were inhibited by simvastatin. Urine CTGF was positively associated with plasma CTGF in both type 2 diabetes (p = 0.0005) and controls (p = 0.01). Urine CTGF levels in patients with macroalbuminuria were significantly higher than patients without macroalbuminuria (p < 0.05). In conclusion, our in vitro study suggests that statin may have a renal-protective effect through the inhibition of CTGF expression. Urine CTGF may be a good marker for the prediction of diabetic nephropathy.