The aim of the present study was to evaluate the arsenic-induced hemotoxicity and to evaluate the protective effects of Lactobacillus sporogenes in male albino Wistar rats. A total of 36 adult male albino Wistar rats were procured and divided into 3 groups of 12 animals each. Group 1 rats served as control, group 2 rats were administered sodium arsenite (@5 mg/kg BW/day), groups 3 rats were supplemented with L. sporogenes (@15 million spores/kg BW/day) along with sodium arsenite administered along with sodium arsenite orally daily for 28 consecutive days. Weekly body weights, hematological profile, and erythrocyte morphology were assessed. Significant (P < 0.05) reduction in mean weekly body weights (g) was observed in group 2 than group 1; however, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in weekly body weights was observed in group 3 as compared to group 2. A significant (P < 0.05) decrease in erythrocyte-related parameters and platelet counts, and a significant (P < 0.05) leukocytosis, relative lymphopenia, absolute neutrophilia, and monocytosis were noticed among arsenic-treated rats when compared to the control group. Blood smear of arsenic-treated rats contains echinocytes, microcytes, and spherocytes when compared to control. Scanning electron microscopic examination of blood revealed altered erythrocyte morphology in arsenic-treated rats with poikilocytosis and blebbing of the erythrocyte membrane. Supplementation of L. sporogenes along with arsenic resulted in improvement of all the hematological parameters and reduction in morphological abnormalities in comparison to the toxic control group. It is concluded that supplementation of L. sporogenes can effectively alleviate the arsenic-induced hematological alterations. © 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.