Products of the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonate metabolism, including hydroperoxides, free radicals, and leukotrienes, are thought to mediate ischemic damage during acute myocardial ischemia (MI). Propyl gallate (1 mg/kg/h) was infused in anesthetized cats 0.5 h after coronary artery occlusion. Propyl gallate did not influence mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), heart rate (HR), or the product of these, the pressure-rate index. Treatment of MI with propyl gallate significantly reduced the plasma accumulation of creatine kinase (CK). This was confirmed by reduced CK loss in biopsies from the ischemic region of the heart, indicative of a protective effect. Propyl gallate also reduced the loss of compounds containing amino-nitrogen groups from the ischemic region, although it did not significantly reverse the S-T segment elevation in the electrocardiogram. These results are consistent with the concept that inhibition of formation of lipoxygenase products protects the myocardium from ischemic damage. This study also helps explain the work of others demonstrating that combined cyclooxygenase-lipoxygenase inhibitors or depletion of leukocytes is beneficial in MI.