The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radioprotective effect of diltiazem (DTZ) on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. In the present study, radioprotective efficacy of DTZ (a calcium channel blocker) was studied against radiation induced haematological and biochemical alterations. Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks old were administered diltiazem (100 mg kg(-1) by weight) intraperitoneally prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro- and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit, haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.0051) decline until day 3, following a gradual recovery from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 28 days post-exposure. In contrast, erythropoietin levels increased significantly and reached a maximum on day 3. In DTZ pre-treated irradiated animals, a significant increase in pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit and haemoglobin values, and a significant decrease in erythropoietin values, were observed compared with control. A significant elevation above normal in lipid peroxidation level was recorded in gamma irradiated mice, whereas this increase was considerably less in DTZ pre-treated animals. Similarly, pre-treatment of DTZ caused a significant increase in erythropoietin and glutathione levels in serum in comparison with irradiated animals. From our study it is clear that DTZ provides protection against radiation-induced haematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice.