The efficacy of wood preservatives in protecting lignocellulosic materials of the gramineous species Phyllostachys pubescens (Moso bamboo) against decay by brown-, white- and soft rot fungi and discolouration by mould fungi was investigated. Vacuum treatment with copper amine and metal-free preservatives protected the bamboo material from attack by decay fungi. Solution uptake of the bamboo material was lower than that of the woody reference materials and must be considered for the treatment process. Dipping treatment with the metal-free preservative inhibited growth of mould fungi and prevented discolouration of the material. Untreated bamboo material was more susceptible to decay by white- and soft rot fungi than to decay by brown rot fungi but was generally more resistant to decay than the untreated wooden reference materials.