Guinea pigs were vaccinated with truncated herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D produced in the genetically engineered mammalian cell line gD10.2. Vaccinated animals formed antibodies that neutralized both HSV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in an in vitro neutralization assay. Vaccinated animals were challenged with HSV-2 by intravaginal infection. Animals that received the immunogen in Freund s complete adjuvant were completely protected from the clinical manifestations of genital HSV-2 infection. Animals that received the immunogen incorporated in alum adjuvants were partly protected from clinical disease; the infections that did develop were significantly less severe than those that occurred in control animals injected with adjuvant alone. The results demonstrate that immunization with a purified viral protein can provide significant protection against primary genital infection by HSV-2 in guinea pigs.