Prostaglandins have been shown to be involved in the mechanism of renin secretion in a variety of situations. Both arachidonic acid and prostaglandin endoperoxide have been shown to release renin from cortical slices and to be converted to PGI2 by cortical microsomes. In the present studies PGI2 was found to cause a time dependent increase in renin release from rabbit renal cortical slices, a system isolated from any indirect effects that result from the administration of prostaglandins in vivo. The stimulation was linear up to 30 minutes and effective over a range of concentrations from 10(7 M to 10(-5) M. At similar concentrations 6-keto-prostaglandin F1alpha was not active on these slices. Thus, it is proposed that PGI2 exerts a direct effect on the release of renin from cortical cells and may be the mediator of arachidonate or prostaglandin endoperoxide stimulated renin secretion.