A decreased PG E2 content in gastric mucosa of humans receiving a longterm antirheumatic therapy has been reported to be partially reversed after a one week treatment with an antacid (Reimann et al., Fortschr Med 102 , 25-26). Therefore the effect of an Aspirin treatment of healthy volunteers with or without an antacid on the prostaglandin synthesis in gastric or duodenal mucosa was investigated. 14C-labelled arachidonic acid was used as substrate during in vitro incubation of the mucosal homogenate for determination of the endogenous formation of prostaglandins. Aspirin suppressed the total prostaglandin synthesis to less than 10% of control after one week treatment. The addition of a high dose antacid did not influence this inhibition, and no significant effect on the prostaglandin profile was detectable. It is concluded that antacids do not influence the suppression of the endogenous prostaglandin synthesis by NOSAC's, however another effect, eg a prolonged stability of PG E2 in a less acidic environment is more likely.