Polymicrobial intra-abdominal infections (IAI) involving Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus are associated with severe morbidity and mortality (∼80%). Our laboratory discovered that the immunomodulatory eicosanoid prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) plays a key role in the lethal inflammatory response during polymicrobial IAI using a mouse model of infection. In studies designed to uncover key PGE2 biosynthesis/signaling components involved in the response, selective eicosanoid enzyme inhibitors and receptor antagonists were selected and prescreened for antimicrobial activity against C. albicans or S. aureus Unexpectedly, we found that the EP4 receptor antagonist L-161,982 had direct growth-inhibitory effects on S. aureusin vitro at the physiological concentration required to block the PGE2 interaction with EP4 This antimicrobial activity was observed with methicillin-sensitive S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains, with the MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration values for planktonic cells being 50 μg/ml and 100 μg/ml, respectively. In addition, L-161,982 inhibited S. aureus biofilm formation and had activity against preformed mature biofilms. More importantly, treatment of mice with L-161,982 following intraperitoneal inoculation with a lethal dose of MRSA significantly reduced the bioburden and enhanced survival. Furthermore, L-161,982 protected mice against the synergistic lethality induced by coinfection with C. albicans and S. aureus The antimicrobial activity of L-161,982 is independent of EP4 receptor inhibitory activity; an alternative EP4 receptor antagonist exerted no antimicrobial or protective effects. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that L-161,982 has potent antimicrobial activity against MRSA and may represent a significant therapeutic alternative in improving the prognosis of mono- or polymicrobial infections involving MRSA.